The deportation from the Autonomous Republic of the Volga-Germans (September 1941)

The deportation from the Autonomous Republic of the Volga-Germans (September 1941)

Following the decree of August 28, 1941, the total deportation of Germans from the Autonomous Republic of the Volga Germans was basically carried through during the first half of September 1941.

Parts of the exile transports that had been unloaded in our region, were first driven to Kazakhstan, but apparently they were rejected and sent back to Siberia.

The exiled Germans who got to our region from the Autonomous Republic of the Volga-Germans, came from the left banks of the river (called "steppe side"), as well as from the right banks (the "mountain side").

From Engels, the administrative center of the Autonomous Republic of the Volga-Germans , they deported people to the districts north and south of Achinsk, but also to the foothills regions south of Kansk (partly to the Sayan district).

From the canton of Ternovka, situated in the suburbs of Engels, people were deported to regions north of Achinsk, to the Birilyussy district. From Marxstadt, on the left banks of the river, they also carried out deportations to Kansk and from there to the district of Irbey. From the canton of Unterwalden in the north, on the left banks of the river, the deportees happened to get to North-Khakassia, to districts on the Yenissey south of Krasnoyarsk, to the destricts east of these, as well as to the districts north, east and south of Kansk.

The deportations from the southern cantons of Kukkus and Seelman on the left banks of the river went as follows: from the canton of Kukkus to the southern foothill districts (Karatuzskoe, Yermakovo), from Seelman mainly to the districts south and east of Krasnoyarsk.

From the eastern steppe canton Krassny Kut they drove the deportees to the north of Kansk, from the south-eastern canton of Pallasovka mainly to the district of Sukhobuzimskoe, and from the adjacent canton of Gmelinka to regions up the Yenissey, as well as downstream to the district of Yartsevo.

From the mountainous banks of the river, from the cantons of Balzer and Kamenka, deported Volga-Germans were taken to our region. From the village of Doenhoff in the canton of Balzer they were deported to Central-Khakassia and the district of Rybnoye, and from the adjacent village of Kutter to the Daurian district (south of Krasnoyarsk). From the canton of Kamenka the deportees were taken to the eastern part of the Nizhneingash district, as well as to the southern district of Kuragino and the foothill district of Sovietskoye (today Beryosovka district) east of Krasnoyarsk.

Most of the exiled Volga-Germans were sent to kolkhozes. However, in the autumn of 1941 they already here and there, and as of January 1942 on the whole, started to force all men, except old people and invalids into the "Trud-Army" (labor army) - primarily for lumbering, to the zones of the Kraslag, Viatlag and Usol'lag but also to the Kuzbas mines (Kuznets hard-coal basin). In the summer of 1942 they forced women, except those who had many children, and juveniles to the north for "fishing" to Igarka, to settlements in the Turukhansk district, to Evenkia, to Taymyr and also to settlements along the Angara River. In 1943 they also sent juveniles into the "Trud-Army", but they happened to get to the oil and natural gas hauling plants in the South-Ural.

The Volga-Germans (who had survived there) were released from the "Trud-Army" camp zones in 1946. The "release" was such that they were sent into internal exile to just those places (in various cases to other places, as well).

At that time, in the years 1946-1947, they used to issue "personal exile files" on all adult Volga-German deportees.

Just during these years they proceeded with the release of exiled farmers in our region (s. sections 4.2, 4.5). Those exiles, who were ethnic Germans, were categorized as "released" on the one hand. On the other hand they were immediately put under "special registration"

(having to appear for registration and periodic checks). They also issued "personal files" on them, just as they had done on those deported from the Autonomous Republic of the Volga-Germans in 1941.

The exiles from the Autonomous Republic of the Volga-Germans (as well as all other exiles reckoned among Germans) were released from exile in February-March 1956 but "without any right to return" home. The problem of re-establishing the territorial autonomy of the Volga-Germans has remained unsolved till the present, although it contradicts the law of restoration of the rights of persecuted and repressed persons. There is an opinion that unless all legitimate rights of the genocide victims (and all the more - those determined by law) have been restored, the rejection of their restoration is to be considered as continuation of the genocide itself. 

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